SpecialGifts.com
Exceptional Values. Save Big!
GrandmasRemedies.com
Quality Vitamins and Supplements
EntrepreneurismBible.com
Your bible for entrepreneurism and personal development.

Home

Search

Holisticonline Home

Inspirational Reading

Healthy Recipes

Nutrition & Diet

Meditation

Prayer/ Spirituality

Selected Prayers

Preferred Providers
Conditions/ Treatments
Alternative Therapies
Feedback
Alternative Medicine

Stress Management

Yoga

Register

Media

Herbal Medicine

pray_hands.GIF (680 bytes) Prayer & Spirituality
[Selected Prayers][ Prayer Home Page][Meditation][Yoga][HolisticonLine Home Page]
 
OM, AUM

Hinduism
Many Paths to One God

Renaissance in Hinduism
People and Organizations That Made a Difference in 18th to 20th Century

In the 18th century Hinduism suffered a major set back by the introduction of English in India. Many people became skeptics and started questioning religious teachings. However, English has also helped Hinduism because several prominet Europeans translated major works of Hinduism into English thus giving it a much needed exposure outside India. Persons such as Sir William Jones, Sir Charles Wilkins, Colebrooke, Monier-Williams and Max Muller revealed the treasures of the ancient Indian wisdom. Their work was later supplemented by art lovers and art critics, who revealed the secrets of sacred and secular art-forms and concepts.

As an outcome of these influences and counter-influences, there arose a series of movements which have been rightly described as a renaissance of Hindu life and thought. Raja Ramamohun Roy was the most outstanding pioneer of these movements. He struck a note of universalism in tune with the spirit of the Upanisads. In 1803 he published a book entitled Tuhfat-ul- Muwahhidin. It carried a protest against idolatry and sought to establish a universal religion based on the idea of the unity of Godhead.

Rammohun Roy repeatedly declared that he had no intention of breaking away from the ancestral religion, and wished to see it restored to its original purity. In order to carry out his ideas he founded the Brahmo Samaj on the basis of theism. The Trust Deed of the Samaj laid down that "no graven image, statue or sculpture carving, painting, picture, portrait or the likeness of anything shall be admitted within the building."

The Brahmo Samaj

Debendranath Tagore, the next great leader of the Samaj, formulated the Brahmopadesa, comprising tenets from the Upanisads and Tantras. His successor, Keshub Chandra Sen, sought to incorporate Christian ideals into the Brahmo Samaj movement. He began the compilation of a scripture including passages from the Holy Books of many religions - Hindu, Buddhist, Hebrew, Christian, Muslim etc. Then he went to England in 1870, he was welcomed by many Christian organizations.

As the result of secessions in the Brahmo Samaj, three institutions arose: The Adi Brahmo Samaj; the New Dispensation of Keshub Chandra Sen; and the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj founded by dissenters from the Keshub Church. 

The Sadharan Samaj gave a rational, monistic interpretation of the Upanisads, admitting the essential unity of the universal self and the individual self. The following doctrines, as noted in Renaissance of Hinduism are common to all these varieties and offshoots of the Brahmo Samaj:

  1. They have no faith in any scripture as an authority.
  2. They have no faith in Avatars.
  3. They denounce polytheism and idol-worship.
  4. They are against caste restrictions.
  5. They make faith in the doctrines of Karma and Rebirth optional. 

Another offshoot of the Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj was founded by Justice Ranade in Bombay. Its program included disapproval of caste, recognition of widow marriage, and the encouragement of women's education.

The Arya Samaj

As a reaction against the influences typified by Raja Ramamohun Roy and Justice Ranade, the Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati. It attacked the Brahmo Samaj for its pro-European and pro-Christian attitude. 

A great Sanskrit scholar and a believer in the doctrines of Karma and Rebirth, Swami Dayanand sought to revive the Vedic ideals and laid stress on Brahmacarya and Sannyasa. He believed implicitly in the ancient scriptures, disavowing Puranic Hinduism in favor of Vedic Hinduism. The Puranic texts, he said, had no Vedic sanction. Holding the Vedas alone as authoritative, he stated that God and the human soul are two distinct entities, different in nature and attributes, though they are inseparable from each other as the pervader and the pervaded. 

The doctrine of Karma and Samsara is of course accepted by the Arya Samaj. One of its main activities is Suddhi, a purification ceremony, by which non-Hindus are converted to Hinduism. The depressed classes and Harijans are entitled to be invested with the sacred thread and are given equal status with other Hindus.

Principles Of Arya Samaj

  1. God Is the primary source of all true knowledge and all that is known by its means.
  2. God is Existent. Conscious. All-beautitude. Formless. Almighty. Just. Merciful. Unbegotten. Infinite. Unchangeable. Beginningless. Incomparable. the support of all. the Lord of all. All-pervading. Omnicient and Controller of all from within. Evermature. Imperishable. Fearless. Eternal. Pure. and Creator of the Universe. To Him alone is worship due.
  3. The Vedas are the books of all true knowledge. It is the paramount duty of all Aryas to read them. to teach them to others. listen to them. and recite them to others.
  4. All persons should always be ready to accept truth and renounce untruth.
  5. All acts ought to be performed in conformity to Dharma. i.e.. after due consideration of right and wrong.
  6. The prime object of Arya Samaj is to do good to the world. i.e.. to promote physical. spiritual and social progress of all humans.
  7. All should be treated with love. justice. righteousness. and due regard to their merits.
  8. Ignorance should be dispelled and knowledge disseminated.
  9. No one should remain content with one's own well-being. but one should regard one's well-being lying In the well-being of others.
  10. In matters affecting the well-being of the society (all others). the individual should subordinate one's personal likings. in matters affecting the Individual alone. one is to enjoy the freedom of action. 

The Theosophical Society

The Theosophical Society was founded in 1875 by Col. Olcott and Madame Blavatsky. Dr. Annie Besant became the head of the Theosophical Society in 1891. Claiming that she had been a Hindu in her former birth, Annie Besant worked throughout her life for the regeneration and activization of Hindu thought and Hindu life. She published a translation of the Bhagavad-Gita along with Dr. Bhagvan Das and popularized Hindu ideals in her numerous publications and marvelously eloquent speeches. A defender of many orthodox ideals, she turned later to social reform, which included the partial modification of the caste system. 

One of the main principles of Theosophical Society is the belief in a brotherhood of great teachers of the past who are supposed to be living still, watching over and guiding the evolution of humanity. The Theosophical Society under Dr. Besant's guidance spread the fundamental principles of the Hindu religion - Karma, Reincarnation, Yoga and spiritual evolution.

Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa, a great devotee and mystic, had a broad outlook of universalism. After accepting the discipline of Yoga and Tantric Sadhana, he underwent the discipline of the Vaisnava, the Christian and the Islamic ways of life. To rouse the religious feelings of the worldly-minded and re-affirm the ancient truths of Hinduism by an appeal to experience, he trained a devoted band of followers, the most outstanding of whom was Narendranath, Swami Vivekananda. 

Sri Ramakrishna's teachings were neither new nor heterodox. As Swami Vivekananda said on one occasion, Ramakrishna brought old truths to light. He was an embodiment of the past religious thought of India. 

Like other great religious teachers of the world, he projected his ideas through parables or images. Questioned, for instance, on the problem of evil, Sri Ramakrishna said:" Evil exists in God as poison in a serpent. What is poison to us is not poison to the serpent. Evil is evil only from the point of view of man." In other words, from the absolute standpoint, there is no evil, but from the relative standpoint evil is a terrible reality.

Ramakrishna preached that realization is the essence of religion - and that all religions are paths leading to the same goal. He deprecated metaphysical subtleties and insisted on deep devotion - it was, he said, through his intense devotion to the image of the Divine Mother in Dakshineswar that realization had come to him.

Swami Vivekananda said:" If men like Sankara, Caitanya and Ramakrishna found image worship helpful, there is no sense in declining it."

Ramakrishna's religion and the movement he founded by gathering around him a band of devoted workers were essentially practical. This aspect was expounded and universalized by Swami Vivekananda. Under the inspiration of Ramakrishna, he changed from skepticism to religious realization and traveled all over the world, preaching the essence of the truths of Hinduism. He dedicated himself to the service of India and particularly to the service of those who were starving, depressed, or beyond the social pale. The work for the uplift of the Indian masses was for him as important as meditation or Yoga.

At the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda struck a note of universal toleration based on the Hindu belief that all religions lead to the same God. He also declared in Chicago that the religion of the Hindus is centered on self-realization; idols, temples, churches and books are aids and nothing more.

Swami Vivekananda on Religion

"Religion is the manifestation of the Divinity already in man."

"Religion is the idea which is raising the brute unto man, and man unto God."

"Try to be pure and unselfish--that is the whole of religion."

"Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within, by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or psychic control, or philosophy--by one or more or all of these--and be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details."

Swami Vivekananda strengthened the Ramakrishna organization by founding monasteries and centers of Hindu teaching in India and abroad. He reinterpreted Hinduism and stated that the abstract Advaita must become living. All through his life and especially during his travels abroad, he insisted that the essential features of Hinduism are its universality, its impersonality, its rationality, catholicity and optimism. Above all, its authority is not affected by the historicity of any particular man. 

Swami Vivekananda told his countrymen that they had become weak and miserable because they did not bring their Vedanta out of the books into life itself. His great contribution to Hinduism lay in applying the Hindu creed to the elevation of the masses and abolishing India's isolation from the world, culturally, spiritually, and in many aspects of social life. He founded a great and worldwide organization, the Ramakrishna Mission, which has worked for the spiritual welfare and multiform amelioration of the living conditions of the people of India and other countries.

See Also: Ramakrishna's Teachings

Sri Aurobindo

Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, one of the latest exponents and interpreters of Hinduism, has described ancient Indian philosophy as follows: 

"an ingrained and dominant spirituality, an inexhaustible vital creativeness and gusto of life, and, mediating between them, a powerful, penetrating and scrupulous intelligence, combined with the rational ethical and aesthetic mind at a high intensity of action, created the harmony of the ancient Indian culture." 

Sri Aurobindo gave new interpretations of the Vedas and the Vedanta, and in his 'Essay on the Gita' he expounded what he called 'the integral view of life." His great work, 'The Life Divine' is a summing up of his philosophy of 'the Descent of the Divine into Matter." The importance of Sri Aurobindo's mission lies not only in his restatements of old ideals but also in his attempt to explain the true methods of Yoga as apart from mere asceticism and illusionism.

Mahatma Gandhi

In the popularization of ancient Hindu ideals, Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi have played significant parts. 

Tagore has made a suggestive interpretation of the Vedic religion and the substance of the Upanishads. 

The teachings of Mahatma Gandhi have led to vast social changes and to the uplift of the backward and depressed classes. He has stated that his whole religion is based on a surrender to the will of God, the spirit of renunciation as embodied in the Isa Upanisad, the Gita and the ideals of practical service. He has given a new interpretation to the doctrine of non-violence which is as old as Hinduism, and tried to adapt it by means of satyagraha to political and moral issues.

Mahatma Gandhi worked for the uplift of the depressed and backward classes and for the creation of national entity. Speaking in Travancore on the Temple Entry Proclamation enacted there in 1936, he said:

"These temples are the visible symbols of God's power and authority. They are, therefore, truly called the houses of God, .the houses of prayer. We go there in a prayerful mood and perform, first thing in the morning after ablution, the act of dedication and surrender. Scoffers and skeptics may say that all these are figments of the imagination, that we are imagining God in the images we see. I will say to these scoffers that it is so. I am not ashamed of confessing that imagination is a powerful factor in life. Now you can easily understand that, in the presence of God, the Ruler of the Universe, who pervades everything, even those whom we have called the lowest of the low, all are equal." 

Source: Hinduism by Dr. C.P.Ramaswami Aiyar, et.al., 
The Gazetteer of India, Volume 1, Publications Div., Government of India, 1965.

[Hinduism Infocenter Home]

[Selected Prayers][Prayer Home Page][Meditation][Yoga][HolisticonLine Home Page]

1stholistic.com and Holisticonline.com are developed and maintained by ICBS
Send mail to: info@holisticonline.com with comments about this web site.
Copyright 1998-2013 ICBS Terms of Use
All Rights Reserved.